DCR history and academic articles


Dynamic Condition Response graphs (DCR graphs) is a constraint-based graphical process notation for Adaptive Case Management. The notation enables end-users and domain experts to capture and continuously adapt the constraints of their workflows and business processes supported by immediate simulation and enactment in case management tools. Unlike traditional workflow and business process modelling notations, which are typically based on flow-graphs describing transitions between states triggered by events and actions, DCR graphs instead focus on capturing the business and compliance rules constraining the order of activities and events. Thereby DCR graphs capture the logic behind the process instead of just a few possible paths that in practice rarely match reality.


DCR graphs has been developed in collaboration between the Process and System Models research group lead by Thomas Hildebrandt at the IT University of Denmark and Exformatics A/S.


For the last quarter of a century businesses have tried to model their business processes in order to increase productivity and increase quality. Many techniques and notations exists, but the Business Process Management Notation (BPMN) is today the industrial standard and at the center of most initiatives. Processes are visualized using BPMN, Swim lane diagrams, flow charts etc. However, while the BPMN is good at describing possible routes, it is very poor at capturing the compliance rules and business constraints on which the routes are based. This means that the descriptions are supplemented with textual descriptions typically found in a Word document, with no formal relationship. As a consequence, the notation offer no support for maintaining compliance rules and business constraints and no support for updating the routes when rules and constraints inevitably changes.

Consequently, updating such descriptions is both a tedious, error prone and, because companies and regulations change all the time, costly operation. Another issue with this approach is engaging end-users in the process dialogue. The flow graph notation often is too rigid, and thus do not support the variation the end-user knows is needed, and also hard to understand because it describes the process as how a machine would execute it. Many initiatives within the field of process research has been trying to simplify the notation and methods and make it able to express more flexible processes, but with little or no luck. This continues to pose a problem for modern businesses today as lack of end-user engagement often leads to process implementations which doesn’t support the real business needs and in the end, productivity suffers.

In order to counter these issues and achieve the overall business goals, increased productivity, higher quality and employee enthusiasm, DCR has been proposed as a new model for collaborative process design, simulation and enactment. To ensure employee engagement DCR enables playing the processes like a game among co-workers. The team of co-workers can define the business constraints and compliance rules using a constraint based process notation and immediately start process simulation to create powerful models that compactly represents the logic of real world workflows.

Video Explanation

The video below explains the difference of BPMN and DCR by example:


Please refer to https://www.tele-task.de/archive/lecture/overview/8751/ for a recent presentation of DCR Graphs at Hasso-Plattner Institute.



  • Digitalising the General Data Protection Regulation with Dynamic Condition Response Graphs by Emil Heuck, Thomas Hildebrandt, Rasmus Kiærulff Lerche, Morten Marquard, Håkon Normann, Rasmus Iven Strømsted and Barbara Weber, BPM2017
  • Declarative process models in government centric IT by Lasse Nørgaard, Jesper Andreasen, Morten Marquard and Søren Debois, BPM2017
  • Towards an Entropy-based Analysis of Log Variability by Christoffer Olling Back, Søren Debois and Tijs Slaats presented at BPAI2017
  • Managing Complexity in Process Digitalisation with
    Dynamic Condition Response Graphs, Thomas Hildebrandt, Søren Debois, Tijs Slaats and Morten Marquard, 2nd Workshop on Managed Complexity
  • Blockchains for Business Process Management – Challenges and Opportunities, Jan MendlingIngo WeberWil van der Aalst[…]Liming Zhu, June 2017
  • Declarative Process Mining for DCR Graphs, Søren Debois, Thomas Hildebrandt, Paw Høvsgaard Laursen, Kenneth Ry Ulrik


  • Experience Report: Constraint-Based Modelling and Simulation of Railway Emergency Response Plans, Søren DeboisThomas Troels HildebrandtLene Sandberg, Procedia Computer Science
  • The Semantics of Hybrid Process Models
    Tijs Slaats, Dennis Schunselaar, Fabrizio Maggi, Hajo Reijers, CoopIS 2016, Rhodos, Greece
  • Deriving Consistent GSM Schemas from DCR Graphs, Rik EshuisSøren DeboisTijs SlaatsThomas Troels Hildebrandt
  • Forms are declarative processes!
    Morten Marquard, Søren Debois, Thomas Hildebrandt and Tijs Slaats, International Conference on Business Process Management (BPM 2016), September 2016, Rio de Janeiro.
  • Flexible, Adaptable & Compliant Business Systems with Dynamic Condition Response Graphs
    Thomas Hildebrandt, Formal methods for Analysis of Business Systems, September 2016, Singapore.







DCR Graphs has been selected as a finalist for BPM Awards 2016 for its work with Danish Dreyers Fond.